• Assessment
  • Implementation
  • Monitoring & Evaluation
  • Data value chain or data life cycle


Indicators make collected data understandable and useful for monitoring performance, assessing achievement and determining accountability. They can be used to determine a proportion (e.g., prevalence) and are often designed to track inputs, outputs, outcomes and impact.


National nutrition information systems – the fundamental series, modules 1–5, New York: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO), 2021.