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220 Term(s) Found

Selenium

  • Assessment
  • Implementation
  • Planning
  • All micronutrient interventions
  • Biochemical
  • Diet
An essential trace element that functions within selenoproteins, some of which are enzymes with important antioxidant functions. Glutathione peroxidases, that provide cellular antioxidant defence, and iodothyronine deiodinases that regulate thyroid hormone metabolism to provide hormonal homeostasis in response to variations in iodine intake, are both selenoprotein enzymes. Selenoproteins are also implicated in cell proliferation and survival, redox homeostasis, and the immune response.

Reference(s)

OpeN-Global, 2019

Sentinel site

  • Assessment
  • Implementation
  • Monitoring & Evaluation
  • Data value chain or data life cycle
A dedicated location (e.g., facility, community) where surveillance data are collected.

Reference(s)

National nutrition information systems – the fundamental series, modules 1–5, New York: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO), 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240043275

Shelf life

  • Implementation
  • Fortification
  • Supplementation
The time that a processed food can be stored before changes in color, flavor, texture, the numbers of micro-organisms or the micronutrient content make it unacceptable.

Reference(s)

PATH and GAIN (2015). Rice fortification toolkit: technical manual.

Sodium

  • Assessment
  • Implementation
  • Planning
  • All micronutrient interventions
  • Biochemical
  • Diet
A nutrient essential for cellular homeostasis and regulation of fluid balance. Elevated sodium intakes are strongly linked to cardiovascular disease and hypertension, which is a major risk factor for heart attacks and stroke. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally. Dietary salt intakes can be monitored to assess the general population risk, and also to monitor trends in salt intake or assess the effectiveness of public health interventions targeted at lowering salt intakes.

Reference(s)

OpeN-Global, 2019

Specification

  • Implementation
  • Fortification
  • Supplementation
A list of tests, references to analytical procedures, and appropriate acceptance criteria that are numerical limits, ranges or other criteria for the test described. It establishes the set of criteria to which a material should conform to be considered acceptable for its intended use. ‘Compliance to specification’ means that the material, when tested according to the listed analytical procedures, meets the listed acceptance criteria.

Reference(s)

PATH and GAIN (2015). Rice fortification toolkit: technical manual.

Stability

  • Implementation
  • Fortification
In the context of fortification, the resistance to change of the chemical properties of the fortificant or adverse effects in the interaction of the fortificant with other food vehicle compounds.

Reference(s)

USAID (2022). Large-Scale Food Fortification Programming Guide.

Standard

  • Implementation
  • Fortification
  • Supplementation
Technical specification(s) for foods that may include a section about fortification that may be voluntary or compulsory with the force of law. Standards may be voluntary or compulsory. However, manufacturers are obliged to follow the technical specifications if they wish to make a relevant claim, such as that a product is fortified.

Reference(s)

USAID (2022). Large-Scale Food Fortification Programming Guide.

Standard operating procedures (SOPs)

  • Monitoring & Evaluation
  • Supply-side
Detailed, written instructions aimed at helping operators achieve uniformity in the performance of a specific function.

Reference(s)

WHO (2021). "Monitoring flour fortification to maximize health benefits: a manual for millers, regulators, and programme managers."

Staple food

  • Assessment
  • Food vehicle
A food eaten regularly and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of the usual diet for a given person or group of people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally providing a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients.

Reference(s)

USAID (2022). Large-Scale Food Fortification Programming Guide.

Statute

  • Monitoring & Evaluation
  • Supply-side
A law enacted by a legislative body. The term act or legislation is interchangeable as a synonym.

Reference(s)

Black’s Law Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, (2019).